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Azoospermia Causes Symptoms And Treatment
Azoospermia (nil sperm) or azoospermia is one of the fertility problems associated with males, which causes male sterility. In this condition sperm are not found in the semen of men. That is, it is a condition that prevents a man’s testicles from producing sperm or does not allow sperm to exit the body and mix with semen. About 10 percent of male infertility cases are caused by azoospermia. Although no symptoms can be felt in this condition, but some conditions of azoospermia can also arise due to internal problems. Due to which it becomes necessary to treat it. Therefore, in today’s article, you will discuss about what is Nil Spermia (Azoospermia), and how to treat this problems.
What Is Azoospermia?
Azoospermia is a major cause of male infertility. When no sperm are present in a man’s semen, then this condition is known as azoospermia. Normally, a man’s testicles produce sperm in the scrotum. Semen is the thick, white fluid released from the penis during ejaculation, which is mixed with sperm and travels through the male reproductive system.
Therefore, when spermatozoa are absent in the semen released during ejaculation, then this condition causes infertility. Around 5 to 10 percent of men diagnosed with azoospermia are diagnosed with the cause of the infertility condition. The condition of azoospermia may be congenital or may develop at any time during the lifetime of the individual. In fact, no symptoms can be felt in the condition of azoospermia. But if a man is trying to get his partner pregnant, this condition causes infertility. Then treatment becomes necessary in this situation.
Types Of Azoospermia
In this condition, sperm is produced normally, but the reproductive tract for both testicles is blocked. Due to which no sperm can reach the semen in this condition. Some patients may develop a different problem on each scrotum side. The problem of obstructive azoospermia arises due to blockage of the epididymis, ejaculatory ducts or vas deference. This condition is also known as post-testicular azoospermia.
In this type of nil spermatozoa, sperm is not produced, or in very small amounts. Due to which sperm are not able to come out of the testicles and sperm are absent in the semen. The following are included under non-obstructive azoospermia.
Pretesticular Azoospermia – In this condition the testicles of the person suffering from this condition are normal, but do not produce sperm. The condition of pre-testicular azoospermia can arise due to very low levels of hormones or after chemotherapy. This is a very rare type of azoospermia.
Testicular Azoospermia – This condition occurs when sperm is not produced normally due to defects in the structure or functioning of the testicles. Conditions such as a reproductive tract infection, viral orchitis, groin injury, radiation therapy, or Klinefelter’s syndrome can cause testicular azoospermia by damage to the testicles.
What Is Symptoms Of Azoospermia?
The causes of azoospermia need to be determined before making a treatment plan. There can be two main reasons for the absence of sperm in semen:
First – blockage or blockage in the male genital system, along with producing completely normal sperm
Second – Poor sperm production
What Is Causes Of Azoospermia?
In fact, most conditions of azoospermia do not show any symptoms. This condition can be detected by examining the doctor. If a man is unable to get his sexual partner pregnant, he should seek a doctor’s advice for a diagnosis of azoospermia. That is, infertility may be the only sign of azoospermia. Apart from this, the following symptoms may be seen in some conditions of azoospermia, such as:
- Increased body fat, body hair and breast tissue.
- The partner being unable to get pregnant.
- Clear, watery or whitish discharge from the penis.
- Sensation of the presence of a lump or swelling in the scrotum.
- Pain or small size of penis when passing urine.
- Difficulty with erection or ejaculation, etc.
There can be many causes of obstructive azoospermia, including:
Epididymis blockages – A variety of conditions can cause blockages in the epididymis, including:
- scrotal injury
- genetic conditions
- Cystic fibrosis, etc.
Non-obstructive Azoospermia can have many causes, including:
- Genetics cause or genetic disorder such as Kallmann syndrome
- Y Chromosome Deletion – The Y chromosome contains many genes, which are important for sperm production. But in some men, the loss or deficiency of these important chromosomes can cause azoospermia. Destruction of the Y
- chromosome causes about 10 percent of azoospermia cases.
- Chromosome abnormality or karyotype abnormality
- chemotherapy or radiation therapy
- Side effects of certain medications, such as testosterone supplements, colchicine (gout medicine), cyclophosphamide, and everolimus (cancer medicine), etc.
- hormone imbalance
What Is Treatment Methods For Azoospermia?
No symptoms may be experienced in azoospermia, so the initial diagnosis can be made by sensing signs of sterility. In the diagnostic procedure of null sperm (azoospermia) by the doctor, a semen sample is required from the victim. This sample is examined in the laboratory with a high penetrating microscope. If no sperm are visible in the sample during the test, the person has azoospermia. Other tests are then needed to diagnose the exact cause of azoospermia.
Other diagnostic procedures for low sperm count (azoospermia) may include the following tests, such as:
- Obtaining detailed medical history information of the patient.
- Physical examination – Under this, signs or symptoms of hormone imbalance are looked for.
- Hormone tests or blood tests to measure hormone levels.
- Genetic testing – to diagnose a problem in a gene.
- Biopsy test of the testicle.
- Genital tract imaging – ultrasound, MRI (magnetic resonance imaging) or CT scan (computed tomography) may be used for this.
What is Treatment Of Azoospermia?
Treatment of nil spermatozoa or azoospermia becomes necessary when a man wants to have children. If the blockage is the cause of the nil spermatic cord, surgery may be recommended to treat it. Therefore, the condition of obstruction in the reproductive tract can be successfully treated through surgery. But for those who do not want to have surgery, they can use a small and thin needle in this situation to remove sperm from the testicles. Then, this sample of sperm can be frozen for use in in vitro fertilization (IVF). Treatment of azoospermia depends on its type and causes, such as-
Obstructive azoospermia. Microsurgery may be recommended for, during this procedure the reproductive tract is unblocked. It is a minimally invasive technique. Endoscopic surgery can remove the blockage of the vas deferens.
The sufferer sometimes needs to make lifestyle or medication changes while being treated for non-obstructive azoospermia. In addition, hormone therapy may also be advised to improve the condition of azoospermia. Hormone therapy includes the use of follicle stimulating hormone (FSH), human chorionic gonadotropin (HCG), clomiphene, anastrozole, and letrazole.
Normal Range Of Sperm Count Per ml
|Total sperm count in ejaculate||39–928 million|
|Normal Range Of Sperm Count Per ml||20 Million To 200 Million|
|Ejaculate volume||1.5–7.6 ml|
|Sperm concentration||15–259 million per ml|
|Total motility (progressive and non-progressive)||40–81 %|
|Progressive motility||32–75 %|
|Sperm morphology||4–48 %|
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